top of page


EnSol is developing treatments to counteract acute and long term consequences of chemical toxins. Current work is focused on treatments against poisoning by potent rodenticides called Superwarfarins, used throughout the world to control rodent infestations. Lead compound ET-101 (a formulation of the bile sequestrant Cholestyramine, CSA)  should provide rapid and long lasting protection against these drugs.

Like warfarin, Superwarfarins are potent anti-coagulants, however they also exert direct cytotoxic effects on cells, revealed by X-ray scattering studies.

Superwarfarins have exceedingly long biological half-lives, which contributes to their potency. Lead compound ET-101 (Cholestyramine, CSA) reduces enterohepatic recirculation, thereby increases elimination and reduces half-lives to hours versus weeks.

Studies show that the kidney is sensitive to superwarfarins--within 1 hour, red blood cells appear in the urine. A simple test for RBCs or hematuria could provide a rapid means to screen for superwarfarin poisoning.

bottom of page